Multiple Sclerosis (MS) poses a significant challenge to both patients and the medical community, impacting the nervous system and often leading to a decline in quality of life. In a groundbreaking study published in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, researchers suggest that Autologous Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (aHSCT), a therapy conventionally used for treating blood cancers, might hold the key to slowing the progression of relapsing-remitting MS.

Those with the condition have spells where their symptoms get worse but is followed by a period of recovery. However, after each relapse, their disability can end up worse than before.

Here, we aim to evaluate the Swedish study’s findings, shedding light on the potential of aHSCT as a transformative clinical tool for managing MS.

Understanding Autologous Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (aHSCT)

aHSCT is a groundbreaking therapy designed to reset the immune system by kickstarting the patient’s own immune response. The procedure involves harvesting blood cells from the patient’s bone marrow or blood, followed by reintroduction after a round of chemotherapy. Traditionally known for treating blood cancers, aHSCT has now emerged as a potential therapy for MS, offering a novel approach to addressing the underlying immune dysfunction associated with the disease.

The Study

The research team recruited 231 patients, 174 of which had been treated with aHSCT before 2020.

Those included in the study had had MS for more than three years and had received two lots of standard treatment. The study found no evidence of disease activity in 73% of those treated after five years and in 65% after 10 years.

Among the 149 patients who had some disability to begin with, 54% improved, 37% remained stable and 9% got worse. On average patients were relapsing 1.7 times in the year before the aHSCT treatment.

Following the therapy, the average relapse rate was one every 30 years.

Study Findings and Implications

The study’s results indicate a significant potential benefit for patients undergoing aHSCT as a treatment for relapsing-remitting MS. Importantly, the research highlights the safety and feasibility of performing aHSCT in a clinical setting, suggesting that this innovative form of stem cell therapy could become a powerful clinical tool for effectively treating MS and restoring both function and quality of life to patients.

Clinical Implications and Future Perspectives

The researchers express hope that aHSCT could eventually be “included as a standard of care” in the comprehensive management of MS. This proposition opens avenues for further research and clinical trials to refine its application, potentially broadening its accessibility and impact within the medical community. The study’s outcomes raise optimism for a future where MS patients can benefit from aHSCT, marking a noted shift in the therapeutic landscape of this chronic neurological condition.

According to the MS Society UK, there are more than 130,000 people with the condition in the UK and 7,000 are newly diagnosed each year.


The groundbreaking study signifies a pivotal moment in the quest for effective treatments for this challenging condition. The research not only demonstrates the feasibility and safety of aHSCT but also sparks hope for a future where stem cell therapy becomes a standard and transformative element in the comprehensive care of MS patients. As we move forward, it is crucial to monitor further developments in this promising field, considering the potential implications for the future of MS treatment and patient outcomes.

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